Susquehanna Bonsai Club

The premiere bonsai club of south-central Pennsylvania


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Susquehanna Bonsai Club – Bjorn Bjurholm and Frank Mihalic

SUSQUEHANNA BONSAI CLUB MEETING WITH FRANK MIHALIC, BJORN BJORHOLM AND JIM DOYLE 

MAY 6, 2016 

It is a unique experience to see three world-class bonsai artists demonstrating at the same time. All three came to bonsai in different ways.

About these guys:

Frank Mihalic, a second generation American bonsai artist had his father, Tony Mihalic who is known for his forest and rock plantings (Saikei), as his first instructor. Wildwood Gardens started by Tony has been cultivating bonsai for 70 years. Go to http://www.wildwoodgardens.com to learn more about the nursery and Frank’s career in bonsai and bonsai jewelry.

Bjorn Bjorholm began his career as an apprentice of Japanese bonsai master Keiichi Fujikawa. Bjorn spent nearly six years working at Mr. Fujikawa’s nursery, Kouka-en located in Ikeda City just north of Osaka. To learn more about Bjorn’s bonsai and his tour schedule go to his website at http://www.bjornbjorholm.com.

Jim Doyle received a degree in horticulture from Delaware College of Science and Agriculture in 1973 and opened Nature’s Way Nursery. Bonsai became a business rather than a hobby in 1980 through the influence of Chase Rosade. Go to his website at Natureswaynursery.com to see photos of Nature’s Way Nursery’s Spring Festival featuring Frank and Bjorn.

What did they do at the Susquehanna Bonsai Club meeting?

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Frank decided to do a rock planting on Tufa rock which has a sponge like texture. The Tufa rock comes from the Sandusky, Ohio area deposits. His tools will be a hammer, screwdriver, wire, adhesive and a chisel to prepare the rock and then plant prepared, appropriately sized plants in the cavities on the rock.

Frank attached tie-down wires to the pockets in the Tufa rock by applying Epoxy putty to the wire at the bottom of the pockets. Crazy glue and cornstarch will also work as an adhesive. There is no need to create drainage holes in the pockets because the Tufa rock is so porous. The benefit to creating a rock planting in a demo is that it looks like a finished product at the end of the demo.

Frank next wired the small trees for the primary plantings. He then puts the trimmed and wired tree in place and sees how it looks. Frank adds some clay to his muck when planting. After the complementary plants are positioned adding moss is the next step. Use wire u-pins to hold the moss in place, so that when the planting gets dry the moss will not pull away. For a vertical rock, cheesecloth can be wrapped around the rock to hold the moss in place. The cheesecloth will eventually rot off. Place the finished rock in a tray of water to add humidity during the summer. Frank likes moss that has grown in the sun. The rock can be overwinter in a poly house during the winter. Frank keeps his storage area around 38 degrees during the winter. Juniper, boxwood and cryptomeria all do well planted on Tufa rock. Forest Rock Planting and Ezo Spruce by Saburo Kato is a good book for more information about rock plantings.

click on first image to open gallery

Bjorn chose a yamadori Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) collected from the Rockies and in a pot for the last 4 to 5 years. The specimen has elegant movement of the trunk and top. He designed a Bunjin style (Literati). The tree was grown in pumice which drains well and will not cause root problems.

Bjorn started by removing deadwood and unnecessary branches. Also remove branches that have no buds on them if you have enough foliage on the tree. There are four types of growth that can be cut from the tree:

1. Anything that is heavy on top and growing upward so that the laterals are maintained.

2. Anything that is hanging down on the bottom side of the branch. Cut the foliage off rather than plucking it off, however, leave a radial group of needles at the end of the branch.

3. Anything in the crotches of the branches. A branch should multiply by 2’s. If there are more than two branches radiating out of the

same spot, it will cause enlargement of the branch at that spot.

4. Start with the biggest branch on the bottom and work your way up the tree. When cutting branches, leave a stub the diameter of the branch. The stub can be used to anchor guy wires used to position branches and it can be removed after it is no longer used.

It is better if the tree is on the drier side when you are working on it. Bjorn holds the wire in the palm of his right hand and uses the left hand to pinch the wire into place. Start at the trunk of the tree and work out to the tertiary branches. Two wraps of wire are required to hold the branch. Two smaller branches of similar size can be wired together. Weave between the needles by using the wire to wiggle around the needles to get to the radiating tip cluster being careful not to smash needles. Ideally two wires or less on a branch at one spot, three being the maximum. The angle when wiring pines can be 60% to 65%, wire deciduous trees at a 45% angle since they tend to break more easily. The direction of the wire on the branch is important. See which direction the branch is going to be bent and wire in the same direction so that the wire will tighten as the branch is bent. Leave the wires on one to three growing seasons and until they bite in a bit, the scar tissue will help to hold the branch in place.

Bjorn positioned branches fanned out like a hand and pads on different planes. With the first branch he created four pads with foliage evenly distributed. The jin will be the highest point on the tree and the pads below that. The jin was formed and positioned but will be worked on after it dries out a bit. Refinement of the styling will be done in later years. He recommended fertilizing all year this year and next to promote back budding and vigorous growth. In the third year and after that fertilize from mid-September to December to promote shorter needles.

Bjorn compared Japanese bonsai and European and American bonsai. In America and Europe Bjorn has the opportunity to style collected trees whereas in Japan most of the work is refinement work of wiring trees. The focus in Japan is on the long-term development of trees 5 to 30 years out and in Europe and America it is on the short-term. In April 2017, Bjorn will be leading a tour to the World Bonsai Congress in Omiya, Japan.

click on first image to open gallery

Jim worked on a yamadori Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) which was collected 3 to 4 years ago. His goal was to show off the movement of the trunk and to design so that it has two viewing sides. The tree’s transpiration should make the bark feel cool all the time even in hot weather. A good way to determine if the tree is alive and healthy is to hold a piece of deadwood in one hand and

a part of the tree in the other hand and if it feels cool compared to the deadwood, it is good to work on it. Wait at least two years before wiring a collected tree and then at least three years after styling a collected tree to repot.

Jim started by cleaning dead and unusable branches from the Lodgepole pine. It is not as flexible as the Ponderosa pine. The tree got twisted in different directions in nature from stress . Branches are chosen to show the movement of the trunk. Bring down the branches into the empty space to emphasize the movement and features of the tree.

Leave the wire on the tree for 2-3 years. It may have to be wired again when the wires come off if the branches do not hold their position. The scars on the tree are beauty marks which show how the tree healed and grew in a different direction. Some branches will be removed in later years.

click on first image to open gallery

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Arthur Joura Demo – Susquehanna Bonsai Club

Arthur Joura On Red Maple (Acer Rubrum) Bonsai : (sorry no photos at the moment)

By Darlene Tyler

Jim Doyle introduced Arthur Joura who is Curator of the bonsai collection at the North Carolina Arboretum in Ashville, North Carolina. Arthur said that 500,000 people visit the Arboretum each year and the vast majority of visitors come through the bonsai garden and really like it. Since 1996 Arthur has been organizing and hosting the Bonsai Expo. This is the 21st Expo at the Arboretum, will feature Dan Robinson, and will be held on October 8 and 9. With Jim’s help, SBC has an exhibit in the Expo every year.

Arthur is committed to developing regional American style bonsai with nature and regional differences in specimens dictating the styles rather than traditional Japanese cultural practices. What changes when studying trees in nature is the role model of how you look at a tree: Instead of taking cues from other bonsai specimens you take your cues from nature.

Arthur’s slide show and lecture about American East Coast trees in their natural setting and their use in American Bonsai was beautiful and inspiring. The photos included a landscape he did while demonstrating for the club in 2005, South Appalachian Cove, an interpretation. The tokonoma display

was an American beech seedling grown by Arthur and a hemlock (styled by Yoshimura with its main trunk removed). This composition was also a demo at the club several years ago.

Red Maple, Acer rubrum, produces an extraordinary display in the fall. It is a canopy tree growing sixty feet to 100 feet tall and lives about one hundred twenty-five years. It is an Eastern North American tree extending from Canada to Mexico and is the most common canopy specimen in the Eastern United States forest. It is cultivated for landscape use and does well in cultivation, is adaptable to a wide variety of site conditions and will vary considerably with its location in the East. Chalk bark maple (Acer leucoderm), Arthur’s demo tree, is an understory tree which has all the attributes of a sugar maple and gets great autumn color. Chalk bark maples grow to thirty-five to forty feet high and develop a smaller trunk than a red maple.

As a bonsai specimen, red maple is readily available both commercially and from nature, transplants well, can be grown in full sun but does better in some shade, and can be used to create any form . It produces new growth on old wood and the leaves reduce well with persistent training but not as well as Trident maple. It is prone to insects and disease (frog eye fungus) and reducing inter-nodal distance can be challenging. Adversity develops character and red maple will develop twisting of the grain and burls.

The flower is showy in a subdued way and close up. From a distance in the landscape the mass of flowers creates an orange to red haze which envelopes the canopy of the tree. It is the color show of the Southern Appalachian forest in the spring. The fruit is a paired samara (an indehiscent winged fruit). The fruit display, which begins green and progresses to pinkish and then to orange when mature, is more eye-catching than the flowers.

There is variability in shape of leaves, size and color and when the leaves first appear the color is different. There is a yellow form of red maple as well as some with orange and bright red leaves. The leaves are translucent when backlit. Red maples do ramify utilizing leaf pruning, but not all the leaves at once. Every week take off the biggest leaves and those with spots from June through July and gradually strip-out the leaves, which is a much more sensible regiment for the plant.

Arthur directed his attention to styling the chalk bark maple specimen, which was cut back in the mid 2000’s and planted. Cut and grow techniques were used yearly to get an authentic movement and tapering in the branches. Look at the tree from all directions and angles to be sure the tree looks convincing from all directions. Frequently you will get good opportunities to redesign a tree when disasters show up and

with the right degree of flexibility, it is often possible to design a new tree.

The maple was bare rooted and a characteristic of chalk bark maples is that they hold their old leaves all winter (marcescent) until the spring when the new leaves push-off the old ones. Remove the old leaves and get a sense of the branches that are not useful and remove a little bit at a time and continue until it is where you want it to be. Have in mind what you want the canopy to be.

Most trees have an upward thrust and the composition will be different if the tree grows in a forest or in an open field. The tree is reaching for the sun. The lower branches have to reach out further. Along the way there is branch removal by insects, disease and competition. We mimic this competition when we prune and allow another branch room to grow. Upward and outward movement and our human ideas are needed to create an attractive bonsai. Try to think like a tree. Make sense out of random movement. What would the tree do with these parts it has? Arthur enjoys carving but sometimes it looks better tearing grab hunks of wood, split and grab and break creates a better finished appearance.

“Dead” deciduous wood will not last long whereas most evergreens have a capacity to resist rot. The exception is hornbeam which holds up well. After creating hollows or deadwood, use a small culinary or soldering torch to round off the edges and make the new work look like an old stump. An indoor/outdoor water-resistant wood glue helps to prevent the loss of moisture in the new work.

If there is competition between the branches, move them upward and outward. To develop trunks, grow the tree in the ground to develop strong root growth and the trunk will expand proportionately. What is bellow grown is vitally important. When you are growing trees in a bed, put a rock or tiles below the roots to keep them radiating out and prevent them from growing down.

After the wiring and pruning, the maple was potted in a box made of locust with hardware cloth on the bottom covered with landscape cloth. The soil mix was the Arboretum’s potting mix and aggregate. The potting mix is composted pine bark, peat moss and Micromax with added lime and micronutrients. The aggregate is expanded slate, a local product. Put a mound of soil mix into the box and push the tree into it and finish adding soil mix after the plant is in place. Attach the tree in the box with wires around the tree that are attached to staples in the top of the box. Design the tree entirely than look for the front at the end of the process.


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Colin Lewis Demo – Susquehanna Bonsai Club

Susquehanna Bonsai Club October meeting with special guest bonsai professional Colin Lewis

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Club president Sheila addressing the club prior to the demo

COLORADO BLUE SPRUCE DEMONSTRATION BY COLIN LEWIS 

Colin and his chosen Colorado Blue Spruce for the demo

Colin and his chosen Colorado Blue Spruce for the demo

Jim Doyle introducing Colin Lewis to the club.

Jim Doyle introducing Colin Lewis to the club.

OCTOBER 19, 2015 

By Darlene Tyler 

Colin Lewis was the guest artist at Natures Way’s Fall Open House this year. He also conducted a Workshop and an evening demonstration on Friday and a Study Group on Sunday. 

Colin is originally from England but now lives in Maine where he has a nursery. He has written articles and books and lectured extensively. He was chosen to be one of the five judges at the Artisans Cup in Portland, Oregon. Colin shared his thoughts about the Artisans Cup: “It was not a bonsai exhibit but rather an art exhibit that had bonsai. The quality of the trees was very high, however, there were too many Rocky Mountain Junipers.” His position is that when you work deciduous trees you learn about its structure and how the tree grows, whereas working conifers whose branches are more flexible and easily shaped is more molding the tree. It is better to learn bonsai working deciduous trees since you learn more about structure”. 

For our club demo, Colin chose to style a Colorado Blue Spruce. After deciding on the front and style of the tree, Colon began to work on creating jin. It easier to see the tree if the jin are the right color so the bark and wood are peeled off at the same time revealing a spiral grain which is common in spruce. If you use raffia on larger branches, use colored raffia for the top layer so that it is the same color as the branch being wired and bent. There is a flat saw cut at the base of the tree which will have to be hollowed out or carved. Use power tools to make a hollow. Deciduous trees have hollows instead of jin. It is acceptable to allow the hollow to rot. It is only the deadwood that will rot. 

The lowest, heaviest, dominant branch will be on the sloping side of the trunk. The other branches will be wired and brought lower. Spruce bleed resin profusely. This is a good time of year to work on spruce because they are not pumping as much resin. Cauterizing helps to seal the cuts so they do not bleed so much. The dry resin is white and can be removed with the use of alcohol and a soft toothbrush and then carefully wash the resin away with soap and water and the soft toothbrush. 

Before wiring the tree, clean off the old needles. The year before last year’s needles will come off easily so pull those. It is better to cut needles on pines rather than pulling them to prevent bark damage. Next look at the shoots, some will be blind, others will not have a terminal bud but will have buds along the branch, remove the blind shoots because they will eventually die back. (#3)When wiring, use a long piece of wire and estimate how much wire you will need to wire the first branch and wire it, then wire the second branch with the long piece of wire. When you are finished wiring the second branch, cut the remainder of the long piece of wire and begin wiring the next two branches in the same manner – this drastically 

cuts down on the amount of scrap wire produced. When you want to get movement in a branch, at least three turns near the pressure points. 

The wires can stay on as long as they aren’t digging in, if they are digging in cut out the piece that is digging generally at the top of the tree and also the more severe bends. If you are re-wiring a tree, run the wires in the opposite direction if possible or not in the same tracks as the last time. The branches may need to be wired two or three times (small branches twice) to establish the branch shapes. Thin areas where there are too many buds. If the buds aren’t healthy, the tree isn’t healthy. Blue spruce pointy buds are not particularly vigorous but buds that look like roses or cabbage shoots will grow vigorously and extend. If you pinch in the spring, you will not get back-budding on the branch rather the branch will live for a while and buds will form at the base of the branch. The biggest task then is going over the tree and cutting out all the aborted shoots that were pinched. 

Colin shared his horticultural knowledge with us while wiring the tree. One question asked was “How did you get started in bonsai?” Colin said that during the sixties while growing a specific plant, he discovered that when you pinch the tips of branches you get two branches. This was his “aha moment” and he said “That’s how they do it!” He also talked about collecting yamadori in the White Mountains. Maine has Red Spruce which are native and are good for bonsai. Alberta spruce (Pica glauca ‘Conica’) is not good for bonsai. In a regenerated forest the birch grow first and bit by bit other species become established in the understory of the birch. When the birch die the conifers take over. When a forest fire occurs, the conifer seeds will be there and they will be growing in a far too exposed environment which favors the creation of trees exposed to extremes of wind and snow. Eastern white pine can be used for bonsai but they take more time. They will back bud and the needles will reduce.

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The finished bonsai. What front do you prefer?

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FRONT A

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FRONT B

As always thanks for reading 🙂


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Dinner and demo with Mauro Stemberger – Susquehanna Bonsai Club

Mauro Stemberger. Italian stallion and bonsai extraordinaire! Mauro’s demo on a Rocky Mountain Juniper for the club.

Following is from the club newsletter editor Ross Adams:

Mauro works as an architect and as a bonsai artist.  He became fascinated with the art of bonsai when he was fourteen and joined the local bonsai club in Feltre, Italy.  During his formative early years he was able to take workshops with, among others, Hotsumi Terakawa, Marc Noelander, Horst Crekler and Edoardo Rossi.  Meeting Alfiero Suardi and Enrico Savini inspired him to take his techniques to a new level.  In 2005 he founded the Italian Bonsai Dream Workshop with a group of enthusiastic bonsai folk so they could become totally immersed in the work and enjoyment of bonsai.  Go to Facebook or his website http://www.italianbonsaidream.com for more information.   
As Mauro worked on the Rocky Mountain Juniper demonstration tree, he shared the following.    The best time to work on Rocky Mountain Juniper is when it starts to point (tips of branches are elongating).  Mauro decided
to create a double trunk Bunjin style bonsai with the second apex low on the tree.   
When styling, first get rid of the parts that are not going to be used.  Also eliminate straight, horizontal and vertical lines.  Geometry, lines and spaces are of utmost importance in bonsai. If there are any decaying deadwood areas on the trunk, remove the spongy deadwood and treat the remainder with PC Wood Hardener.  If the tree is strong you can safely remove up to 70% of the foliage.       
Before any significant cutting of branches, however, It is important to find the live veins.  If you cut branches that are important to a live vein, l the live vein may die.  Equally important is to make a clean line between the dead and live veins.  Mauro uses a Swiss leather makers tool to do this (It resembles a scalpel).  He also uses a tool made from a chain saw blade bent into a u-shape (Scorp) to clean off the bark from he dead vein areas.    
For severe bends, use raffia.  Putting tape on top of the raffia will maintain moisture on the bend and the branch will recover more quickly.  Wiring is the language of
Bonsai.  Test the branch before you wire it to determine the size of wire needed.  Mauro prefers copper wire since it is stronger and you can use a smaller gage.  Start with larger wire on the base of the trunk and the basic structure of the tree, then wire the secondary branches with appropriate wire and finally the smallest branches with fine wire.  Keep the wire flow continuous and in contact with the branches to distribute stress to the trunk of the tree.  Wire so that the wire will become tighter after the branch is bent.     
Mauro loves to collect trees and to do the first designs of trees.  Unlike bonsai professionals in Japan who are specialized, Mauro does all stages of development and maintenance of trees.  
In Europe the collecting is done in February to the end of April at lower altitudes.  Mugo Pines and higher altitude trees are collected from May to June.  While collecting it is important to determine where the live 
veins are and if you can successfully collect roots associated with the live veins. Equally important is the trunk movement.  When you collect trees, mist and adjust the temperature up or down so that the tree continues to suck water.   
Olives are easy to collect since the base can be cut off horizontally and the tree will root easily.  Oaks in Italy grow in clay soil and after collecting, plant them in perlite and put a black plastic bag over them and keep completely dark in winter then change to a transparent bag when it starts to push in the greenhouse, then to  air in the greenhouse and then outside.  If yamadori trees are strong, you can style them after having been grown in a pot for three years.

(Click on first image to enlarge and scroll)

Thanks for reading 🙂


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David Knittle – Susquehanna Bonsai Club

I apologize for such an extremely longtime since the last post on the Susquehanna Bonsai Clubs blog. A combo of extremely limited time and technical difficulties is never a good mix.

 Back in February of this year, the club had speaker David Knittle do a presentation on properly displaying bonsai and the different materials used to display bonsai particularly tables/stands. Dave is a very well-known wood craftsman who for many years handmade high quality wood furniture. Dave at one point found an interest in bonsai and the methods of displaying them and decided he could put his craftsmanship skills into making wooden display tables/stands for bonsai. Dave’s bonsai displays are sought after around the world and in high demand. Please enjoy the gallery below of Dave’s presentation to the Susquehanna Bonsai Club.

(Click on first image to enlarge and scroll thru the photos)

Sorry again for such a long time between post. Thanks for reading!


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Susquehanna Bonsai Club Annual Picnic 2014

Every year the Susquehanna Bonsai Club puts on an excellent annual picnic for club members. 

Great Picnic! Great Auction!

The Food: Outstanding as usual. Thanks to Bob Findley for coordinating that part of it! 

The Venue: Except for an uneven mow job, Sean’s home, landscape & bonsai collection were fantastic. Thanks for the hospitality Sean!

The Specifics, submitted by Darlene Tyler:

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club members relaxing under the tent having a good time

Sean Smith : Yew demo at club picnic

English yew (Taxus baccata) is slow growing with one flush a year, and has a hard wood which is used to make tool handles. Sean got the yew from a nursery about eight years ago. Some branches were removed earlier to create deadwood and the top was split and wedged with a chopstick to create more movement. 

The deadwood on the front of the tree is interesting but the top of the tree is leaning away from the front. By tilting the back of the pot up so the top of the tree leans slightly forward and repotting the tree in that orientation next spring will correct that problem. In order to save time, Sean will leave the jin and shari formation in the deadwood area for a later time and work on styling and wiring. When wiring yew, go between the leaves to prevent damage to the foliage. The deadwood areas are marked with chalk for future shari and jin carving. 

Yews bud back well and propagate easily and are not susceptible to disease and insect damage, but cannot tolerate drying out. Monitoring water is critical to keeping the yew healthy and alive. Yews grow well in part sun or filtered light and akadama soil. Repot next year and then every three to four years or no more than every two years for young trees. There are many fine roots under the trunk. When the root pad is established in its new orientation, the tree can be planted in a shallower pot. 

Sean donated his yew for raffle. Congratulations to Dave Loeffler for winning it.

 Auction at club picnic

Auctioneers Jim Doyle and Jim Gillespie opened the sale with a dwarf geranium and a bonsai pot which sold for $10. A box of pots sold for $20, a viewing stone and diaza for $40, a Sara Rayner pot for $35, a larch for $55, a black pine for $135, a Japanese wisteria for $65, and Bonsai Today # 1 – 76 sold for $150. 

In total the Auction and Demo raffle brought in $1,384 for the club! Thanks to past SBC presidents, Sara Senft, and Dick Gutherion for donating pots, books, and 

journals for the auction, thanks also to members who brought and bought items. 

And a big thank you to Jim Doyle and Jim Gillespie for, as usual, a very entertaining auction.

Thanks for reading!


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Peter Warren and Minoru Akiyama – bonsai demo – Susquehanna Bonsai Club

A little over a month ago, the Susquehanna Bonsai Club had the honor of receiving an excellent demo/lecture from 2 extremely well-known bonsai professionals. From the UK, Peter Warren teamed up with Minoru Akiyama from Japan and gave our club a great show.

Minoru Akiyama apprenticed for six years under bonsai master Kunio Kobayashi at Shunka-en bonsai nursery. At age 29, Minoru was the youngest person ever to win the Prime Minister’s award at the Sakafu-ten bonsai exhibition, the highest accolade for a professional bonsai artist. He won this award again in 2011, both times using junipers collected by his father, a renowned yamadori collector. He has won many other awards at Sakafu-ten and won the top prize at Koju-ten, the professional Satsuki Azalea exhibition. 

Peter Warren did a 5 year apprenticeship under bonsai master Kunio Kobayashi at Shunka-en as well. It was during this time Peter met Minoru and they became good friends while both were apprentices. Peter has a wealth of bonsai knowledge and travels the world giving bonsai demos/lectures to bonsai clubs. 

Minoru was the Senior apprentice (Senpai) while Peter was the Junior apprentice (Kohari). 

For our club demo, an established root-over-rock shimpaku juniper was chosen for them to work on. Majority of the hands on work to the tree was done by Minoru while Peter did all the translating and assisting when needed. Also while Minoru was working on the tree and Peter had some free time, Peter gave the club some great info on care, styling and techniques for working with junipers. All and all it was a great club meeting! After the photo gallery is more detail about the demo/lecture provided from our club’s newsletter editor Ross Adams.

Please enjoy the photo gallery of the event 🙂

(click on first image to enlarge photo and scroll thru gallery)

Trees with a less than ideal nebari are generally used for root-over rock plantings. It is important to find a good rock to put the tree on since the image and feel of the tree will be influenced by the rock. A deciduous tree can be placed on a rock with soft curves, but if you are working with a conifer, you want a mountainous image of the stone. Stones like trees have a front and back. Since junipers grow in a severe environment, look for a stone with a severe mountainous image. 

The Root-Over-Rock Juniperus chinensis ‘Shimpaku’ has tight foliage and many branches. It suggests a cascade, semi-cascade, or windswept style. Semi-cascade and windswept are similar but made by different forces. Semi-cascade and cascade have the image of clinging on a rock and being pushed down by rocks and snow, whereas windswept is created by winds blowing and forcing the branches to survive on the leeward side of the tree. One of the difficulties of changing the angle of a Root-Over-Rock style of tree is how deep is the rock in the pot? If the rock is shallow, it can sometimes be corrected by creating a stable base for the rock with cement if it will be concealed at ground level at the chosen angle. 

Peter and Minoru decided to create an image of a plant growing in a severe environment, the tree grew up and then got hit with winds that bent it over. Deadwood will be created and the main line of the composition will be determined. To create deadwood, look for branches that are straight and have no character and cut the stub long and use a cutting and tearing technique to simulate how a tree loses branches in nature being careful not to damage tissue below the branch. There are three branches all looking about the same for the main line. Remove the thicker branch, the two remaining branches are thinner and will improve the taper of the top. Leave more foliage on the branches until they are placed and then remove excess. The tips are left uncut, they will continue to grow and the tree will recover more quickly. 

In a month or two the longer shoots can be cut back. Look at the balance of the whole tree as well as the individual branch you are shaping. Re-pot next year if the tree is growing well. When a tree loses foliage, it thinks it is going to die and sends out juvenile foliage. Juvenile foliage has more surface area and synthesizes more and is soft and breathes more easily. Cutting too many roots, pruning back too hard, or taking off too many growth shoots all can cause the growth of juvenile foliage. 

Junipers grow rapidly. Light green tips indicate growing tips, inside the tree needles are waiting in reserve and the tips are darker green, while failing areas turn brown. Clean out the dead and dying foliage from inside the tree to bring in air and light and encourage back budding. Clean off the base of the branches and prune back the terminal growth cut back the growing tip to encourage the secondary branches of the cluster to grow. Cleaning everything out from the crotch is bad and leaving everything is bad, rather encourage adventitious buds to grow so we can cut off  “leggie” branches. Select one juvenile growth to replace “leggie” branches. Rather than cutting off a long shoot, wire the branch and bend it on two planes, bend it up, right, down, left. A pad should look like an upturned hand with fingers extended up creating depth and more movement to the pad. A long shoot can develop a nice pad in one year using this technique. Don’t tie shoots in knots or a pig tail. Prune off all branches that are on the inside of curves. Secondary branches grow on the outside of the curves. It is best to wire and style trees in the fall when the growth is hardened off. The branches are more supple in the spring, but more care is required in the spring to prevent damage to the bark. 

Once we get tight growth and the strength of the areas are relatively equal, maintain the fan shape of the branches. Look for strong areas to cut back by removing the strong central growing tip of bundles and allowing plenty of green tips to grow. It is no longer standard practice to pinch all growing tips which actually causes the tree to go in shock. 

Disease problems with junipers include spider mites, scale, and tip blight (more a problem on the West coast). Preventive spraying of pesticides is good if you are having problems. Spray from the inside out and repeat in a week or follow label directions. Mites mature and are laying eggs in a week. Spider mites like dry conditions spray from a hose will help dislodge mites. We are close to the mountains and have to consider contamination from the wild. Fungal issues are caused by humans not sterilizing hands and tools, rain or spray late in the day, and cedar apple rust from crabapple and rose family and hawthorn, and tip blight. Junipers will not transmit rust to each other but Prunus and Malus are alternate hosts for rust. 

 

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